Rev Med Chil. Sep;(9) Epub Nov [Prevalence and epidemiology of Loxosceles laeta bite. Analysis of consultations to a poison control. In the present study we show that the more potent venom containing the Class 1 SMase D from Loxosceles laeta, in addition to increasing the. A South American brown spider (Loxosceles laeta). L. laeta is one of three species whose venom was tested by a University of Arizona (UA)-led research team.
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The Chilean recluse spider is a venomous spiderLoxosceles laetaof the family Sicariidae formerly of the family Loxoscelidae. This spider is considered by many to be the most dangerous of the recluse spidersand its bite is known to frequently result in severe systemic reactions, including death.
Like most recluses, it is brown and usually has markings on the dorsal side of its thoraxwith a black line coming from it that looks like a violin with the neck of the violin pointing to the rear of the spider resulting in the nickname “fiddleback spider” or “violin spider” in English -speaking areas. Coloring varies from light tan to brown and the violin marking may not be visible.
Since the “violin pattern” is not diagnostic, it is far loxpsceles important, for purposes of identification, to examine the eyes. Most spiders have eight eyes, but recluse spiders have six eyes arranged in pairs dyads with one median pair and two lateral pairs. Like other recluse spiders, the Chilean recluse builds irregular webs that frequently include a shelter consisting of disorderly threads.
Unlike most web weavers, they leave these webs at night to hunt. People get bitten when they unintentionally squeeze them in clothing and bedding. These spiders frequently build their webs in woodpiles and sheds, closets, garages, and other places laetx are dry and generally undisturbed. The spider is frequently found in human dwellings. The spiders can last a long time without food or water,  a fact that encourages their worldwide spread.
The Chilean recluse spider is native to South America. It has been introduced into several areas outside its natural range but does not thrive in those locations.
One colony of the spider is living in the Natural History Museum of Helsinki where it was probably introduced through fruit shipments in the s and s. As indicated by its name, this spider is not aggressive and usually bites only when pressed against human skin, such as when putting on an article of clothing.
Loxosceles laeta – Wikipedia
Like all sicariid spiders, the venom of the Chilean recluse contains the dermonecrotic agent Sphingomyelinase Dwhich is otherwise found only in a few pathogenic bacteria. According to one study, the venom of the Chilean recluse along loxosdeles the six-eyed sand spider Hexophthalma hahnicontains an order of magnitude more of this substance loxsoceles that of other sicariid spiders such as the brown recluse.
The damaged tissue will become gangrenous black and eventually slough away. Bites are felt initially but may take up to seven hours to cause visible damage; more serious systemic effects may occur before this time, as venom of any kind spreads throughout the body in minutes.
Application of an ice loxlsceles helps as first aidbecause the venom is more active at high temperatures.
The spider should be brought with the patient in a clear, loxoscceles closed container for identification, if it can be captured. However, by the time the bite is noticed any spider found nearby is not likely to be the culprit. Antidote results have been discouraging.
Systemic corticosteroids are often considered, but without clinical trials to support the practice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chilean recluse spider Scientific classification Kingdom: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History.
Hunting venomous species in the basements of Los Angeles”. Retrieved 23 January Yle Uutiset in Finnish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. Epidemiologic, clinical and experimental studies”. Retrieved August 6, Freedman, Eduardo Gotuzzo 6 February Gorgas Course in Clinical Tropical Medicine.
University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Chilean recluse spider
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