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Haoma and Harmaline: The Botanical Identity of the Indo-Iranian Sacred Hallucinogen “soma” and Its Legacy in Religion, Language, and Middle-Eastern . Haoma and Harmaline: The Botanical Identity of the Indo-Iranian Sacred Hallucinogen “Soma” and Its Legacy in Religion, Language, and Middle Eastern . Haoma is a divine plant in Zoroastrianism and in later Persian culture and mythology. Haoma has its origins in Indo-Iranian religion and is the cognate of Vedic.

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See the parallel examples in Gershevilch Only when that tradition of oral composition began to decline in India and Iran did the hymns become fixed. In popular survivals of the festival later on, when most participants were no longer prepared for such effects as visions that drinking sauma might bring, the isfand was merely burnt, or else it was replaced by a nonin toxica ting plant Al- Biruni’s report shows that the substitute plant was pomegranate.

In the latter connection. Fa ima collected it ForHusayn and Hasan. Ephedra was valued only as jaoma additive to sauma. However, since Ruta graveolens necessarily reached India via Iran, where it appears to serve analogously to soma in certain rituals, it may be that the Sanskrit names are modeled upon Iranian terminology of ritual substitutes for Peganum harmala.

It is the spectrum of knowledge and sharing that is the Nexus which keeps me tuned in here, often. Haramline practical aspects of harmala and a few other plants.

And he drank that wine and injng and consciously said grace and fell asleep on the blanket. Whether a relative or a stranger, may his eye be burnt in the fire. David Stophlet FlatteryMartin Schwartz. R or Galen c. In Zoroastrian rituals where sauma is burned instead of being consumed, the plant used has always been harmel. Although substances continue to be sold in bazaars as bahman, there is perplexity about its identity throughout Islamic pharmacognosy literature see Meyerhof and Sobhy There on those mountains thou growest.


On pafa- t AtharvaVeda 2. When this is very hot, he mixture is poured in from the mortar; and when it is heated right through, vinegar is added and then pure water. Darbha-grass provided the seat of the god Agni on the fire-altar, and was used to sweep the sacrificial area, whence the numinous power of this grass cf.

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The modern Ossetic word for ‘beer’. Refresh and try again. The ordeal character of the text of Yasna 8 has been demonstrated by Darmesteter Sauma ceremonies developed among a nomadic population and must have harmalone place in open country.

In Videvdad IX against profane duzaka- for ‘hedgehog 1there stands vaqhapara. Note the spellings and vocalizations of vernacular forms in Payne Smith The seven sisters together abd all theologians and herbads and mobads of the Religion of the Mazdayasnians did not in any manner neglect protection to the body of Wiraz.

HarmePs reputation as a magical plant may have come to Asia Minor and ultimately from the Iranian heartland ; cf. It is possible that the barsom Var.

Since Ephedra was identified with haorna in rituals, however, it would be remarkable if it were not also occasionally used to symbolically represent sauma. There is no support for the theorization that barzsman- originally referred to vegetation used as a cushion. Because of supplying this 6- The quantity of harmaline may be twice that of harmine in seeds collected in January, with the ratio between the two alkaloids reversed in June Kamcl et al.

Moreover, the data, when examined closely, actually preclude the meaning ‘pomegranate’ for haSanaepSta in the Avesta. Avestan baresman bundle of twigs was originally a bundle of Haoma stalks. Ephedra was essentially linked with the extract drunk during the ceremonies. Copyrighted material The Evidence of Zoroastrian Rituals 73 nized for many centuries as a medicine, it is not regarded as intoxicating and its consumption lacks ceremonial or religious associations.

Eduardo Rivera marked it as to-read Oct 24, This analysis rests on several assumptions, each unsupportable: Beyond the establishment of a common origin of haoma and soma and numerous attempts to give that common origin a botanic identity, little has been done to compare the two. Can anyone confirm if this is true?

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The traditional interpretation of Yasna ll exhibits a wholly symbolic conception of haoma, as a result of which the substitute plants were seen as equivalent representations of a spiritual entity and not as standing for a particular species. Also both haoma- and para. Into harmalone sanctuary the candidate for initiation must pass, and harmallne laying aside his own proper robe must put on that which Cyrus the Elder used to wear before he became king; then he he must eat a cake of figs, chew some turpentine- wood, and drink a cup of sour milk.

In order for the Iranian priests to have adapted barasman-Zbarsom to serve the ritual and emblematic functions of the hand-held twigs, it would have been necessary for them to have replaced the original barsom plants by stouter ones, such as twigs of the pomegranate or of Ephedra, or else by the anciently used tamarisk branches.

Haoma & Harmaline

Furthermore, sauma must have been commonly known in ancient Iranian society as an intoxicating plant in order for the credibility of the sauma ceremonies, and the authority Iranian priests claimed from them, to have been maintained.

Ephedra species of the Indo-lranian area 71 5. Because an extensive mythology associated with this apparent rationalization of the ritual presence of soma had already developed, it may be supposed that the use of the intoxicating plant had vanished from the usual ceremonies long before the final fixation of the Ifksarfthita as we have it. Whether Dioscurides’ report that moty was an Anatolian name for harmel establishes the botanical identity of Hermes’ moly is a matter of some controversy for which tee J.