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Traditionally assigned to Bharata, a legendary sage, Natya Shastra is one among the famous trio of India, the other two being Kautalya’s Artha. Natya was then taught by God Brahma to the mythic sage Bharata, who is said to have recorded this teaching in the Natyashastra. The origin of the book is thus. The Nātya Shastra (Nātyaśāstra नाट्य शास्त्र) of Bharata is the It is attributed to the muni (sage) Bharata and is believed to have been.

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The general approach of the text is treat entertainment as an effect, but not the primary goal of arts. The text originated to enable arts that ahastra the society and encourage each individual to consider good counsel, to explain mui and demonstrate arts and crafts widely.

The Nattiyam comprises 36 chapters and is possibly the creation of more than one scholar. The compilation of this treatise dates back most probably to the second century AD, although the tradition formulated in it was older.

Owing to overpressure of work, Brahma perhaps chose the sage Bharata to write the grammar of such an entertainment. The need for such a form of expression appears to have been based on the fact that the early drama texts were in often in Sanskrit, which was understood only by the two higher casts, while the gesture language could be, at least in principle, comprehended by all. Thus Brahma created the Natya Vedawith the assistance of other gods.

The conversion of a story into a dramatic plot is based on the single main element which ends the conflict, elaborated in its elements and conjunctions. Retrieved from ” https: According to Natyashastrastate Sally Banes and Andre Lepeck, drama is that art which accepts human beings are in different inner states when they arrive as audience, then through the art performed, it provides enjoyment to those wanting pleasure, solace to shastrw in grief, calmness to those who are worried, energy to those who are brave, courage to those who are cowards, eroticism to those who want company, shastrra to those who are rich, knowledge to those who are uneducated, wisdom to those who are educated.

It is attributed to the muni sage Bharata and is believed to have been written during the period between B. Spontaneous and involuntary reactions like perspiration and tears are also mentioned. Human factor or natural factor?


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Natya Shastra

The subjects covered by the treatise include dramatic composition, structure of a play and the construction of a stage to host it, genres of acting, body munk, make up and costumes, role and goals of an art director, the musical scales, musical instruments and the integration of music with art performance. Abhinaya mime acting in the nangiarkuttu style Jukka O. University of South Carolina Press.

Loom Of Time, Kalidasa. The text states that the playwright should know the bhavas inner state of being of all characters in the story, and it is these bhavas that the audience of that drama connects with. Mjni four kinds of instruments — stringed, percussion, solid and hollow. The very appearance of the character should speak volumes to the audience.

Bharata refers shsatra bhavas, the imitations of emotions that the actors perform, and the rasas emotional responses that they inspire in the audience. The myth of the origin of theatre in India, told at the very beginning of the Natyashastraor the Drama Manualshows the central role of theatre and dance in Indian culture.


Significance of compositional forms in Hindustani classical music. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Natyasastra discusses Vedic songs, and also dedicates over verses to non-Vedic songs.

The origin of the book is thus shrouded in mythology, but the work itself is indeed living reality. Specific training on gestures and movements for actors, their performance and significance, are discussed in natha 8 through 12 of the Natyashastra.

The use of mudra also hastathe symbolic hand gestures, is especially characteristic of Indian dance and theatrical expression. External evidence gives us a clue that the Natja work was available to Mahakavi Hbarat, as he refers to its author in his lyrical work Vikramorvasi. The second principle, bbharat treated as law, states that there exists a natural consonance between notes; the best between Shadja and Tar Shadja, the next best between Shadja and Pancham.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Natyashastra describes from chapter 28 onwards, four types of regular musical instruments, grouping them as stringed giving the example of veenacovered giving the example of drums, solid giving the example of cymbals, and hollow stating flutes as example.


Natyashastra | Indian drama treatise |

The composition of Dharma-shastras collections of treatises on sacred dutiesamong which the most often quoted is ascribed to Manu, became important in a period of social flux in which traditional social law and usage were….

The same is also the case with the aharya or the outer aspect of the acting, i. Bharata also speaks of 33 minor fleeting feelings like bashfulness, anxiety and indignation.

Thank You for Your Contribution! Ritual and Music in Hindu Tradition.

Bharata Muni – Wikipedia

He tells us also about how and what distance the judges should be seated. Most shasrra it preserves information and practices that for generations had already originally been conveyed orally.

Drama and Ritual of Early Hinduism. The books,”Natyasashtra” by Bharata Muni and “Abinav Darpan” by Nandikeshwar are considered to be the original sources of Bharatnatyam an indian classical dance form.

The Natyashastra and other ancient Hindu texts such as the Yajnavalkya Smriti assert that arts and music are spiritual, with the power to guide one to mokshathrough empowering the concentration of mind for the bharaat of the Self soul, Atman. In the present dance traditions a dance number or a whole recital often combine nrtta dances and abhinaya numbers. Today it is a different story. Its primary importance lies in its justification of Indian drama as a vehicle of religious enlightenment.

Thanks are owed to Bharata for giving importance to women to perform on a par with men. It includes karanas or basic dance units, four ways of standing, 32 movements of the feet and hips, nine neck movements, seven movements for eyebrows, 36 types of gaze, and symbolic hand gestures, 24 for one hand and 13 for both hands etc.

The artist repeats and chisels this imagery by giving it concrete shape through stone, sound, line or movement. The Natyashastra is, states Emmie Te Nijenhuis, the oldest surviving text that systematically treats “the theory and instruments of Indian music”.

It is love or hate at first sight. Pure, abstract nrtta dance section from the bharatanatyam repertoire Sakari Viika.