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API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Recommended Practice for the Design of Offshore Facilities Against Fire and Blast Loading, First Edition. American Petroleum Institute (API) First Edition, April 76p. This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of.

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This website uses non-intrusive cookies to improve 2fh user experience. Prior to the Piper Alpha incident inlimited design guidance for offshore structures to limit the consequences of fires and explosions existed. Remedial actions Retrofit of barriers usually blast walls to existing installations plays a major part in reducing the risk and achieving ALARP criteria for accidental explosion events.

However the QRA process is quite complex and can be demanding which tends to limit the QRA by concentrating on representative scenarios. Proceedings of an international conference Diverless and Deepwater Techology: The nature of the threat varies significantly with inventory detail, level of confinement and congestion which is almost always present on North Sea layouts.

The most prominent leak scenarios for the study were considered as a part spi the simplified approach in lieu of considering exhaustive scenario combinations based on different leak sizes, weather parameters, leak directions, etc.

Peer reviewed only Published between: Fire and Explosion Guidance Part 2: Application of such methodology would also provide benefits to the operators in receiving quick and reliable fire protection cost estimate. This is of relevance to the offshore sector in relationship to FPSO’s where potentially larger gas cloud sizes could form due to space constraints.

Worldwide practice Prior to the Piper Alpha incident inlimited design guidance for offshore structures to limit the consequences fp fires and explosions existed.

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a practical approach to the cost estimation of fire protection systems during bidding stage using Simplified Risk Assessment SRA methodologies. Although an incident of the same magnitude as Piper Alpha has been avoided, there have been fires and explosions which could potentially have led to 2f catastrophic 22fb.

HSE aims to reduce work-related death, injury and ill health. Large scale testing in recent years has highlighted that apk higher overpressures can occur as a result of an ignition of a hydrocarbon in a typical offshore module with realistic levels of congestion and confinement.

Safety critical elements Structural elements and systems are used in provision of control and barriers for explosions and are likely to be designated safety critical elements.

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Proceedings of an international conference Subsea Controls and Data Acquisition ‘ Abstract Projects with accelerated engineering, procurement, and construction EPC schedules are becoming common in rpp oil and gas industry with Oil Majors keen on quick and guaranteed returns on investment.

Sheriff’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition. Health and Safety Executive. You can visit our cookie privacy page for more information. In some cases this can lead to ignoring the low probability high consequence events. Structural strengthening of offshore topsides structures as part of explosion risk reduction methods, The Steel Construction Institute, HSE rr Proceedings of an international conference Oceanology: Proceedings of an International Conference Submersible Technology: These have been shown to act as stress raisers and potential failure sources, even at low pressures.

Care is required in converting back to the pr structure to ensure the additional stresses are captured, particularly at support locations of both the beam and at equipment support points. This apii recommends minimum requirements and guidelines for the design and installation of electrical systems apu fixed and floating petroleum facilities located offshore.

Structural behaviour under explosion hazards

This policy should have no impact for new installations as designs should incorporate the required regulatory and technical principles. Fire and Explosion Guidance Part 1: Other valuable documents include the Norsok standards and the GEE JIP project which resulted in the publication of an important handbook. This method is often described 2cb simple because of the simplicity of the idealisation and the fact you can obtain a response time history using a spreadsheet hence conducting parametric studies which are useful for screening different pressure time histories.

Risk level Large scale testing in recent years has highlighted that significantly higher overpressures can occur as a result of an ignition of a hydrocarbon in a typical offshore module with 2tb levels of congestion and confinement. Rock Mechanics Symposium and 5th U. Aip fire and blast information group was subsequently established through rpp a number of important technical notes have been published.

Limiting a potential gas cloud size is an important issue in the design phase as well as keeping the design pressures inherently lower generally through design to minimise the effects of an explosion and fire is a key component on an FPSO facility.

It emphasizes the need to train personnel in fire fighting, to conduct routine drills, and to esta Also the option of minimising congested areas by splitting up the processing into smaller units and introducing sufficient gaps between the units is unlikely due to space constraints and economics. This publication is designed to serve as a direct field aid in well control and as a apu source 2fbb teaching Prior to the Piper Alpha incident, structural design to limit the consequences of a hydrocarbon explosion was mainly confined to constructing blast walls in the well bay area.

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Is this page useful? Previous research has shown that as the gas cloud increases a runaway length can be reached at which point the overpressure increases significantly.

This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of offshore structures against fire and blast loading. A key area which requires detailed consideration are the structural details which would perform adequately under static loading but become brittle and possibly fail under a dynamic loading consideration.

Post Piper, several bars of pressure were found to be a real possibility with realistic levels of congestion and confinement. This also changes if modifications made to the structure increase inventories.

As a result of this, little attention was given to design strategies dealing with explosion scenarios.

Technical policy relating to structural behaviour under explosion hazards

The latest tp based guidance which is currently in use is the API Recommended Practice 2FB for design of offshore facilities against fire and blast loading.

As a consequence there is the potential for an improvement in QRA models. However what is certainly not simple is the way in which the actual structure is converted into a single spring and a mass which in general requires good engineering judgement and a certain degree of experience. Introduction Industrial scale fire, explosion and environmental pollution from the production, refining, and distribution of petroleum remains one of the major concerns impacting human life and environment, incurring business losses and 2fn organizational reputation.

Generally speaking, guidance for the offshore area is still evolving. The basic function of a FPS is to receive hydrocarbons from the wellhead, process the hydrocarbons, and store This is typically taken as the mid-span with the assumption of a uniformly distributed mass and stiffness.

About us Contact us Help Terms of use. The advantages of adopting this methodology based on SRA approach are deemed to be well-suited for bidding phase, where the time and cost of carrying out detailed risk analysis is not feasible.