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In vitro production of volatile fatty acids by reactivated cellulolytic bacteria and total ruminal bacteria in cellulosic substrate. Agrociencia [online]. , vol, n. 5. Produccion de acidos grasos volatiles ruminales en bovinos alimentados con coseta seca de remolacha y heno de trebol rosado []. Stehr, W. Hiriart, M. de la producción de metano en el rumen, así como también el rumbo que debieran seguir .. leche, metano y ácidos grasos volátiles totales en vacas lecheras.

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Effect of feeding and housing systems on rumen properties and plasma metabolite stress indicators in autochthonous Spanish Ojalada sheep. To rear lambs of the Ojalada breed, fed exclusively on mothers’ milk until 5 weeks, three feeding systems were compared: Parameters related to ruminal fermentation pH, NH 3 -N concentration and proportion of volatile fatty acids VFAs in 40 sheep during a production cycle were monitored.

The plasma concentrations of stress-related metabolites i. When analyzing plasma metabolites, we found that during the entire production cycle, grazing sheep had higher concentrations of glucose and cortisol. Keeping the sheep indoors during the production cycle and during lactation did not increase the plasma levels of the evaluated stress indicators. Barley straw, ewe, grazing, local Spanish breed. The Ojalada breed of sheep is reared primarily in the central and south-western zones of the region of Soria in North-Central Spain.

It differs from other breeds because of its peculiar mor phological characteristics half-fine white fleece with centrifugal black pigmentation. This breed is studied less than other autochthonous Spanish breeds.

Lambs from the Ojalada breed are raised without having been separated by sex and are fed exclusively on mothers’ milk until five weeks. The two primary expenses in traditional systems of sheep husbandry include dietary supplements and labor. Because these factors directly affect lamb health and quality of the product, sheep raisers are often burdened with high amounts of difficult labor, which can decrease the raisers’ quality of life.

To rumeen cost and labor demands while maximizing quality, sheep raisers use a management strategy based on the use of agrarian subproducts. For example, a TMR diet helps achieve automation of feeding at a minimum cost.

TMR diets are composed of only one type of feed and can acidis given to animals kept indoors; many studies have been conducted Miguel et al. For ruminant feeding, ingested small particle has been linked to the incidence of digestive disorders, such as decreased pH in the rumen. In theory, physically effective fiber is a measurement for the ability of an ingredient to stimulate rumination and saliva production, thereby increasing the ruminal pH Yang and Beauchemin, Some authors Calberry et al.

In the field of animal welfare, intensive production systems that make use of space-restricted accommodations cause frustration and stress to the animals because the animals cannot behave as the species normally would Carlstead, These behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorders and could be related to states of frustration, anxiety and depression Hedlund and Sutcliffe, A breed’s physiological response has been used to determine the degree of stress resulting from handling, transport and slaughter.

Elevated plasma levels of cortisol Sevi et al. Similarly, other authors Kannan et al. Increased plasma levels of NEFAs have also been cited by some researchers as a sign of stress Kannan et al. After analyzing and characterizing the effect of feeding systems on the live weight, reproductive performance, milk yield, milk composition bolatiles growth of lambs in native Spanish Ojalada sheep Miguel et al. Grasls these installations, work has been ongoing for 30 years on the characterization, conservation and genetic improvement of the native Ojalada breed, and a system involving three live births every two years per ewe has been employed.

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The study was conducted throughout a productive cycle breeding at the end of the lactation period. To this end, ewes of the Ojalada breed between the ages of 4 and 6 years with a No hormonal treatment was used for the induction and synchronization of periods of heat. During the breeding season wintertwo males were added to each group, and they remained with the ewes for 45 days for a possibility of breeding in two heat periods.

The endpoints were recorded throughout the entire productive cycle until the end of the lactation period in the month of August.

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During the five weeks of lactation, a weekly evaluation was performed for both the quantity and chemical composition of the milk. Milk was sampled from 10 randomly chosen single-birth ewes from each group. To accomplish this evaluation, the lambs were separated from their mothers early in the morning. The ewes were injected with 5 IU of oxytocin and milked mechanically followed by a second more complete milking by hand. Four hours after the first injection of oxytocin, the operation was repeated with the same dose of oxytocin, and the amount of milk obtained from this second milking ru,en measured.

Animals were provided with a TMR based acidoss chopped barley straw short fiber; 5 mm mixed with concentrate, which was distributed mechanically and administered ad libitum.

Animals were provided with a TMR based on whole barley straw long fiber from large bales approximately kg mixed with concentrate using an volatoles mixer and administered ad libitum. Ten representative herb samples in 10 quadrants were collected at monthly intervals.

Efficacy of essence oil supplementation to feeds on volatile fatty acid production

Herbage dry matter DM Neutral detergent fiber NDF As a complement to the straw, concentrate was added during last third of volayiles and lactation. The same type of concentrate was used for both groups, and it was mixed with the straw so that the animals could not separate it.

Acdios composition vokatiles this concentrate Table 1 and the proportion of straw varied according to the productive stage as follows: The proportion of straw used at each production stage was used by the volariles of large bales.

Ingredients, chemical composition and nutritional value of the concentrate based on productive phase all the data on fed basis. Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles. The average consumption of food was measured only in the groups permanently kept indoors. Measurements and analytical methods. Once per month during the production cycle, coinciding with weight control, as well as once per week during the lactation period five weekscoinciding with the control of milk production, Miguel et al.

The pH values of the rumen fluid, which may be related to the VFA concentrations, were determined with the aid of a pH meter. After the pH measurement, the rumen fluid was strained through 8 layers of cheesecloth.

The filtrate mL was acidified with 7. The supernatant was used for ammonia analysis according to a modified procedure of Broderick and Kang Effect of treatment on ruminal parameters.

As expected, acetate, propionate and butyrate were the VFAs found in greatest proportion in the rumen in the three treatments. Levels of glucose, lactate and CK were higher in all three treatments groups during the lactation period compared to the entire production cycle Tables 3 and 4.

Effect of treatment on plasma metabolites throughout the productive cycle. Standard error of least-squares means. Effect of treatment on plasma metabolites throughout the lactation period. In all three treatments, the pH values of the rumen were between 6. In all three cases, the concentration of NH 3 -N in the ruminal fluid was greater than 5 mg dL -1which is the minimum value required for optimal growth of microorganisms in the rumen.

Similar to Asadi et al. Less saliva leads to less buffer capacity to maintain pH within the optimal range. In contrast, Pereira et al. Although our study showed a NH 3 -N higher content in treatment groups fed with larger particle sizes whole and grazing strawAsadi et al.

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Other researchers have found that different concentrations of NH 3 -H in the rumen are related more to the type of concentrate used in the diet than particle size Azizi-Shotorkhoft et al, The total VFA concentration and individual ratios of VFAs were similar in the three treatments and did not appear to be influenced by particle size.

Similar results have been reported by Asadi et al.

Thus, working with goats, Zhao et al. Le Liboux et al.

Comparing the content of these plasma metabolites in sheep under different stress conditions, different researchers have found that blood values of these indicators may increase immediately after the stressor but then tend to decrease such that differences between animals not subjected to the stress are trivial.

Comparing different types of stress in goats, Kannan et al. Similar results have been obtained in previous work by Galipalli et al.

In sheep, Zimerman et al. This result was similar acicos that grsos by Kannan et al. In our study, volatiled cause of stress evaluated was the type of accommodation captive vs. Thus, we concluded that measuring this type of stress by comparing different levels of plasma metabolites may not be the most appropriate method and that it may be necessary to use methods that compare behaviors e. Consortium, Lelystad, Netherlands to assess animal welfare.

Moreover, no differences have been found among various production parameters when comparing the different treatment groups Miguel et al.

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Therefore, the different levels of stress, if any existed, did not affect the final outcome. We observed that the levels of glucose, lactate and CK in sheep during lactation were higher compared voaltiles those evaluated during the production cycle, thereby leading us to conclude that the acute stress of milking e. Feeding Ojalada ewes a TMR with small particle size chopped straw vs.

Furthermore, housing the ewes indoors throughout the production cycle and providing either TMR diet did not increase the plasma content of the measured stress indicators. Official methods of analysis, 16 th ed. Effects of lucerne particle size and source of dietary carbohydrates on in situ degradation and ruminal variables in sheep. The effect of volaatiles levels of molasses on the digestibility, rumen parameters and blood metabolites in sheep fed processed broiler litter.

Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Effects of replacing chopped alfalfa hay with alfalfa silage in a total mixed ration on production and rumen conditions of lac-tating dairy cows. Vegetation dynamics in Mediterranean forest pastures as affected by beef cattle grazing.

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